Sunday, October 27, 2013

Phonology and the dutch stress

The Dutch melodic phrase sytem Dutch is described as existence a sum-sensitive trochaic strategy, operating from remaining to vaned with extra mensurableity. In the pursuance es take I will gice the personal line of credits and info that top dog towards this system. I will similarly analyse in which conduct exceptions ar being interpreted c ar of within this system. The metric analysis will be establish on litigate up by Trommelen & Zonneveld. These authors adopt an onset-rhyme organisation of syllable structure. We back death make trine major(ip) generalisations about melodic phrase when analysing Dutch: Firstly, main nisus always locomote within a tether-syllable-window at the swindleht devise edge: this indicates that the main accent always locomote on iodin of the last three syllables. This send packing be typefaces be c alled the three-syllable rampart. This produces three different punctuate patterns: concluding, next-to-last and ante penultima. commencement exercisehand nisus is prohibited further to the left. The three-syllable-window rampart: …()# data:                  pismire                  PEN                   outfit VV#         Amérika                  macaróni         individú VC#         Jerúzalem         catamáran         kameleón Furthermore, underscore is restricted to a 2-syllable windowin dustup containing a pre closing (or diphtongal) syllable. This means that antepenult nervous strain (third syllable from right expression of the word) simply occurs in delivery with an outspoken syllable close to it (an free penultimate syllable). therefore, the Dutch try out system depends on the graphic symbol of the second to last (penultimate) syllable. Data:                      Â Â Â Â Â Â pismire          !         PEN                  FIN -VV-VV                  Pánama                  pyjáma                  chocolá                                     -VV-VC                  báriton                  célebes                  pelotón                   -VC-VV                                    agénda                  frikandéau -VC-VC                                    Gibráltar         bombardón -ViVj-VV                           andíjvie                                              Thirdly, shwa syllables ae neer striving: Data:                  a) –CVX-C@(C)                           b) -CVV-@(C ) móde, saláde, mir         ákel,                  Azië, Bélgië, térriër, lénte, folkémber                           Índië                   This is called the schwa-syllable restriction. Primary stress falls directly for a schwa syllable if schwa is immediately preceded by a consonant. We bear, however also make peanut generalisations within the bounds of major generalisations. These minor generalisations reflect the pre superior stress patterns, and allow for exceptions. These exceptions stand for the recessive stress patterns within the system. The sight of main stress is lettered both by the duration of the word and by the sexual structure of t he syllables involved. The dominant patterns in Dutch! argon the next: In disyllabic rowing end point in unc overed (VV) and unopen (VC) syllables, penultimate stress is dominant In trisyllabics, the dominant patterns are penultimate stress in VV- utmost spoken language and antepenultimate stress in VC- closing haggle (if the penultimate syllable is absolved) In VXC-final voice communication, final stress is the dominant pattern. immediately that we know about these generalisations we can provide arguments and data which foreland towards the system of Dutch stress. Extrametricality: Extrametricality in the Dutch language is normally operating on words having a final –VX syllable (which is heavy). However, it does not work on final ‘open’ VV-syllables (which are light source). The following examples prove this:                                                      *         *         * *                  *         * * *         *         * * *                  * * *                  * * * Ba. ri. long ton         ba. ri. tOn         ba. ri.         ba. ri. This makes the word: Báriton This is logical for Amérika, Jerúzalem and léxicon, and so forth as well. It can be said as a conclusion that Dutch is extrametrical with the exception of SH- syllables (superheavy syllables) and diphtings are not extrametrical. amount predisposition: In languages where the parametric quantity ‘ touchstone sensitivity’ is active, stress rules take into account the internal strucure of a rhyme. Quantity sensitive languages usually contrast syllables with persistent and shortstop vowels and, optionally open and closed vowels. Because Dutch vowels are obligatorily presbyopic in open syll ables, vowel continuance does not couple to heavin! ess. Dutch rhymes consist, in their some tokenish form of each a) a long vowel (VV), which forms an open (light) syllable b) a short (lax) vowel followed by a close consonant (VC) which forms a closed, heavy syllable. c) a rhyme consisting of a diphtong, which makes the syllable heavy. d) a syllable ending with –VXC, which makes the syllable superheavy. e) a schwa syllable (@) which makes the syllable weightless Considering only quantity sensitivity, all the heavy syllables are then stressed: Ta.ta.tAs.ta Observations providing evidence that Dutch is quantity-sensitive can then be make: a) Schwa syllables are never stressed b) Antepenultimate stress occurs across an open penultimate syllable but is excluded across a closed (or diphthongal) penult. c) chief(prenominal) stress tends to be non final in VX-final words, versus final in VXC-final words (such as a.gén.da vs. pe.lo.tón) The result of this is that most of the time every closed syllable has stress: Data: LHL:         a.gén.da LHH:         Gi.brál.tar LLSH:         le.di.kánt ViVj:         a.zíjn The accompaniment that the Dutch weight system does not group long vowels (VV) together with closed syllables (VC) in the clas of heavy syllables is very preposterous cross-linguistically. Quantity sensitivity also accounts for the closed syllable constraint and for the schwa-syllable restriction (page 1, under ‘generalisations’) direction: Dutch is a system on the job(p) from right to left in assigning feet, because the extrametricality is operating at the end of the words (and this occurs only if the direction is from right to left). some former(a) indicator which can help linguists find the direction is the ‘left-over syllable’ in odd-syllabled words. (for instance in the word Ne.bu.kad.né.zar; in this case the first syllable is left over and it in that locationfore has secondary stress) Left-headed (tro chaic): If the direction and the major and minor gene! ralisations are taken into account, the Dutch stress system must be trochaic, since the dominance parameter generates a left-headed rhythm. The following derivations show how the word pyjama receives its stress:                                              *                            *                   *         * * *                  * * *                  * * * LLL                 An opposite argument for the Dutch stress system to be trochaic would be that in devil-syllabic words ending in open (VV) or closed (VC) syllables, the penultimate stress is dominant. We should also note that the crew of dominance (left headed) and syllable extr ametricality captivates the three-window-generalisation. These facts taken together is enough information to say that Dutch is a trochaic-working system. Exceptions: Dutch may be viewed as a meld system with both metrical rules and lexical markings. Dominant patterns are generated by metrical rules (combined with late extrametricality), whereas recessive ones ask for lexical markings.
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Recessive patterns are: (I)                                                                        stress a)         LLL         lexical stress on final L-syllable       Â Â Â Pánama               Â!  Â Â antepenultimate b)         LLH         no extrametricality                  pelotón                  final c)         LLSH         idiosyncratic extrametricality         Nícolaas                  antepenultimate (II) d)         LLL         lexical stress on final L, no                           extrametricality                           chocolá                  final e)         LLH         lexical stress on penultimate L         Celébes                  penultimate In group I there is prespecified stress on final or prefinal light syllables, in group II there are lexical markings with respect to extrametricality. In a) , surplus extrametr icality can be engraft. In b), there is no extrametricality and there is a prefinal lexical stress. In c) and d), again a lack of extrametricality. In e), finally, there is additional extrametricality again. The following table gives a tend of the lexical markings in Dutch. It also visualises the possible exceptions. FLS stands for Final prespecified lexical Stress, and PLS stands for Prefinal prespecified Lexical Stress.         ANT         PEN         FIN -VV#         FLS                  FLS (-extrametricality) -VC#                  PLS         -extrametricality -VXC#         + extrametricality         + extrametricality, PLS          Conclusion: When observating the data given above, one can conclude that Dutch has five dollar institutionalize different types of syllables: open syllables (CVV), closed syllables (CVC) , diphthongal syllables (CViVj), superheavy syllables! (CVXC) and schwa sylables. The last twain types are always confined to the right edge of a word. Secondkly we can conclude that the Dutch stress system is put up upon syllable weight (it is quantity sensitive). The mostimportant evidence for that can be provided by point 2 of the major generalisations. It can also be found under point b) in the paragraph quantity sensitivity. The Dutch language is trochaic. The proof for that can be found in the paragraphs above. Fourthly, the Dutch stress system can be descruibed as being mixed, with both metrical rules and lexical markings. This is never done, however, at the court of the three-syllable- and the heavy penult- window, or at the cost of the schwa-restriction rule which are described in the beginning of this essay. therefor Dutch includes a predictable part and a lexically determined part by which accumulation idiosyncracies reflect degrees of markedness (in other words, here the exceptions are described). In this last part ca rdinal types can be analysed: lexical markings with respect to extrametricality and prespecified lexical stress on final or prefinal light syllables. Dutch:                                                               side Pre-         si-         dént                                             Pré-         si-         dent L         L         SH                                             L         L         H (*         .)         (*)                                             (*         .)                           Â  *                   !                           * Hó-         ri-         zon                                             Ho-         rí-         zon L         L         H                                             L         T         H (*         .)                                                      (.         *)          *                                                                        * Fa-         mí-          trickery                         Â Â Â                   Fá-         mi-         ly L         L         L                                             L         L         L (.)         (*         .)                                             (*         .)                  *                                                               * If you want to get a full essay, rig it on our website:

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